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Job interview Topics for Electrical and electronic Engineers (Part-2).


Electrical Engineering interview question and answers:Job interview or viva Topics for Electronics and Electrical Engineers (Part-2).


In this topic we discuss about Load Curve,Demand Factor and Load Factor.



4. Load Curve:

The curve which shows the variation of load on the electrical power station with respect to time is known as load variation curve or simply load curve.

5. Importance of Load Curve:

                  
  • The Daily Load Curve gives the information of load on the power station during different running hours of the day.
  • The number of unit’s generation per day is found from the area under the daily Load Curve.
  • Average load is found from the Load Curve.

Average load= [Area (KWh) under daily load curve/24 hours]

  • The maximum demand of the station on that day is found from the highest point of the daily Load Curve.
  • The size and the number of generating units can be determined from the load curve.
  • This Load Curve helps to determine the operation schedule of the station. In that case when all the units or the less units needs to running is found.

6. Demand Factor:  

The ratio of maximum demand and connected load on the power station is called as demand factor.

Demand Factor= [Maximum Demand/Connected Load]

  • In the power station Maximum demand < Connected Load.
  • Demand Factor < 1
  • Demand Factor is very important in determining the capacity of the plant equipment.

7. Load Factor:  

The ratio of Average load and the Maximum demand in a given period of time in a power plant is known as load factor.

Load factor = [Average load/ Maximum demand]

  • In a power plant Average load < Maximum demand
  • Load factor<1.
The Load factor is very important for determining the cost of per unit generation of power.




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Electronics and Electrical Engineering interview Question and Answers for fresh engineers (Part 1)


Electronics and Electrical Engineering interview Question and Answers for fresh engineers (Part 1)


Question1: Is it possible to start up a 36w or 40w 220V AC/DC tube light without the help of Coil or Choke?

Answer 1: It is not possible without the help of electric coil or choke. Because, the coil or choke ionize the particles in the tube light. In normal voltage it is not possible to ionize the particle.


Question2: What is the difference between three point and four point starters?

Answer 2:  In the four point starter the line and Shunt are connected separately. In the three point starter the line and shunt are connected in same. This is one of the advantages of three point starter.


Question 3: What types of resistance is used in bulbs or tube lights? What will happen if a 220volt AC operated bulb or device run by the 220volt DC?

Answer 3:  The AC operated Bulb or device has a very low resistance. But, the devices whose are designed for AC offers high impedance to the supply. When the DC voltage is applied to the AC devices, the passing DC current is very high due to the low resistance of the device. This high voltage may damage the device.


Question 4: What do you mean by electric traction?

Answer 4: Electric Traction means running a machine by using electric energy or power. Electrical energy, energies the traction system. Basically DC motors are used in traction system. Now electric traction system widely used in trams, trolleys, industries, railways .Bullet train is also running by the magnetic traction, magnetism is setup by the electric energy in the bullet train.


Question 5: Why the capacitor works doesn’t work on DC?

Answer 5: The capacitor normally gives an infinite resistance to DC component. But, it allows AC power component to pass through the devices. These resistances of the capacitor blocks work of DC component.

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Electronics and Electrical Engineering interview Question and Answers for fresh engineers (Part 6)


Electronics and Electrical Engineering interview Question and Answers for fresh engineers (Part 6)

 In this topic we know about different types of motors starting torque and current, rheostat position, role of armature reaction, stepper motor, KVAR.

 Question: In the synchronous motor, DC motor or Induction motor which types of the motor has the high starting torque and starting current? What are the load criteria for those motors on the starting condition?

Answer:  From these motors the starting torque is present at the DC motor.

The load criteria for the starting conditions are as follows,
·        The DC series motor can not start without the presence of the load.
·        The synchronous motor and Induction motor can not start at the presence of load.


Question:  In the motors starting purpose why the armature rheostats at maximum position while the field rheostat is kept in minimum position? 

Answer:  in the time of starting a motor the field rheostat is kept in minimum state for the high starting torque.

In the time of starting a motor the armature rheostats is used to control or reduce the high starting current. This high starting current can damage the motors starting systems.

Question: What are the types of power in electrical power?

Answer:   There are normally three types of power are counted in electrical power. They are,

·        Apparent power
  • Active power
  • Reactive power

Question:  What does the KVAR means?

Answer: The KVAR indicates the electrical power. KVAR means

                   “Kilo Volt Amperes with Reactive components”

 Question: In the magnetic fluxes, what is the role of armature reaction?

Answer:  The armature flux plays an important role for the running condition. This armature flux can oppose the main flux or it may support the main flux for better running condition. This effect of supporting and opposing of main flux to armature flux is called armature reaction.

 Question: What do you understand by the two phase motor? Give us one example.

 Answer: The motor which have a phase split in the running and starting winding is called as a two phase motor.

Example: Servo motor is one types of two phase motor. In the servo motor there is phase difference of 90 degree between control winding and auxiliary winding.

 Question:  Define stepper motor. What is the use of stepper motor?


Answer: The motor which work or act on the applied input pulse in it, is called as stepper motor.
This stepper motor is under the category of synchronous motor, which does not fully depend of complete cycle. It likes to works in either direction related to steps. for this purpose it mainly used in automation parts.



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Electronics and Electrical Engineering interview Question and Answers for fresh engineers (Part 7)


Electronics and Electrical Engineering interview Question and Answers for fresh engineers (Part 7)

In this topic we know about the Power Factor, the leading and lagging condition for the power factor, the disadvantage of the low Power Factor and the main causes of the low power factor.

 Question: What is Power Factor?

 Answer: In an a.c. circuit the cosine of angle between voltage and current is called as power factor.

power factor improvement vivasolve.blogspot.com
Fig: Power factor angles

 Question: What are the leading and lagging conditions in the power factor improvement?

 Answer: Normally there are two types of circuit, capacitive and inductive circuits.

·        In the capacitive circuits, current leads the voltage and power factor is called as leading.
·        In the inductive circuits, current lags behinds the voltage and power factor is called as lagging.

Question: What are the disadvantages of low power factor?

 Answer: The main disadvantages of low power factor are as follows,

1.     Large size of the Conductor.
2.     Large Kilo Volt Ampere rating of the electrical machinery or equipment.
3.     Poor or unaccepted voltage regulations.
4.     A big amount of Copper loss.
5.     The handling capacity of the system reduced.

Question: What are the main causes of the low power factor?

 Answer: In the supply system normally the power factor is lower then 0.8 for the overall load. Low Power factor is very undesirable, because it hampers the economic parameters for the power generation and distribution. Now, some short important causes are as follows,

·        In the low lagging factor some electrical equipment such as electric discharge lamps, Arc lamps and the industrial heating furnaces are running.
·        The power factor is also depending on the load conditions. The load is varying time to time.  The supply voltage is increasing in the low load period which increases the amount of the magnetization current. This magnetizing current is resulting in the decreased power factor.
·        The single phase and three phase ac motors have low lagging power factor and they are induction type also. The power factor is varying for these types of motor. It can run from 0.2 to 0.9 values depends on load. In the heavy load the power factor can be 0.8 or 0.9 and in the light load the power factor can be 0.2 to 0.3.


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Electronics and Electrical Engineering interview Question and Answers for fresh engineers (Part 8)


Electronics and Electrical Engineering interview Question and Answers for fresh engineers (Part 8)

 In this topic we know about the substation and its some requirements for setup.


 Question: What do you mean by substation? Give some details.


Answer: The electric power is now generated in the form of alternating current. The electric power is produced in the power station, which is generally very far from the consumer premises. So, the generation, transmission and distribution are facing much difficulty. It is distributed to the consumer or user by the help of a very large interconnected network. In the network it is very important to change some characteristics for transmitting and distributing the electric power properly. Such as, ac to dc conversion (by using thyratron and mercury arc rectifier), voltage up or down (If the generating voltage is 11kv then transfer it to the high voltage range of 220kv), frequency change, power factor correction and improvement. This change needs a setup of some apparatus properly, in short this types of setup is called substation.

          The assembly of electrical apparatus whose purpose is changing the some major characteristics of the electric supply system is called substation.


            The substation is very important for achieving the continuity of supply to the consumers. In some cases the ac is need to convert in dc for running the dc motor, traction, electroplating processes this type of conversion is performed by the sub-station (ignitron).

electronics and electrical engineering interview question and answer: sub-station
SUB STATION


Question: What are the basic requirements for setup a substation? Or which conditions are considerable for setup a substation?


Answer: The continuity of electric energy supply system is solely depending on substation. So, enough care should be taken when designing and set upping a sub station in a suitable place.

Some points are as follows,

·        The substation must have the chance of easy operation and maintenance.
·        The place must be proper for setup a substation. It must be setup near the centre of the load.
·        The substation must have enough safety apparatus or safety setup. There must be enough chance for running the maintenance and clearing process. Also there should be setup for fire protection.
·        The system must be reliable. When designing protected gears and other instruments must be included. The construction process also maintained properly for reliable operation.
·        The capital cost must be as low as possible.

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